Async WritesΒΆ

The number of concurrent operations issued for the async write I/O class follows a piece-wise linear function defined by a few adjustable points.

       |              o---------| <-- zfs_vdev_async_write_max_active
  ^    |             /^         |
  |    |            / |         |
active |           /  |         |
 I/O   |          /   |         |
count  |         /    |         |
       |        /     |         |
       |-------o      |         | <-- zfs_vdev_async_write_min_active
      0|_______^______|_________|
       0%      |      |       100% of zfs_dirty_data_max
               |      |
               |      `-- zfs_vdev_async_write_active_max_dirty_percent
               `--------- zfs_vdev_async_write_active_min_dirty_percent

Until the amount of dirty data exceeds a minimum percentage of the dirty data allowed in the pool, the I/O scheduler will limit the number of concurrent operations to the minimum. As that threshold is crossed, the number of concurrent operations issued increases linearly to the maximum at the specified maximum percentage of the dirty data allowed in the pool.

Ideally, the amount of dirty data on a busy pool will stay in the sloped part of the function between zfs_vdev_async_write_active_min_dirty_percent and zfs_vdev_async_write_active_max_dirty_percent. If it exceeds the maximum percentage, this indicates that the rate of incoming data is greater than the rate that the backend storage can handle. In this case, we must further throttle incoming writes, as described in the next section.