|ZPOOL(8)||System Manager's Manual||ZPOOL(8)|
zpool — configure
ZFS storage pools
zpool command configures ZFS storage
pools. A storage pool is a collection of devices that provides physical
storage and data replication for ZFS datasets. All datasets within a storage
pool share the same space. See zfs(8) for information on
For an overview of creating and managing ZFS storage pools see the zpoolconcepts(7) manual page.
All subcommands that modify state are logged persistently to the pool in their original form.
zpool command provides subcommands to
create and destroy storage pools, add capacity to storage pools, and provide
information about the storage pools. The following subcommands are
- Displays a help message.
- Displays the software version of the
zpooluserland utility and the ZFS kernel module.
- Creates a new storage pool containing the virtual devices specified on the command line.
- Begins initializing by writing to all unallocated regions on the specified devices, or all eligible devices in the pool if no individual devices are specified.
- Destroys the given pool, freeing up any devices for other use.
- Removes ZFS label information from the specified device.
- Increases or decreases redundancy by
detaching a device on an existing vdev (virtual device).
- Adds the specified virtual devices to the given pool, or removes the specified device from the pool.
- Replaces an existing device (which may be faulted) with a new one.
- Creates a new pool by splitting all mirrors in an existing pool (which decreases its redundancy).
Available pool properties listed in the zpoolprops(7) manual page.
- Lists the given pools along with a health status and space usage.
- Retrieves the given list of properties (or all properties if all is used) for the specified storage pool(s).
- Displays the detailed health status for the given pools.
- Displays logical I/O statistics for the given pools/vdevs. Physical I/O operations may be observed via iostat(1).
- Lists all recent events generated by the ZFS kernel modules. These events are consumed by the zed(8) and used to automate administrative tasks such as replacing a failed device with a hot spare. That manual page also describes the subclasses and event payloads that can be generated.
- Displays the command history of the specified pool(s) or all pools if no pool is specified.
- Begins a scrub or resumes a paused scrub.
- Checkpoints the current state of pool, which can be
later restored by
- Initiates an immediate on-demand TRIM operation for all of the free space in a pool. This operation informs the underlying storage devices of all blocks in the pool which are no longer allocated and allows thinly provisioned devices to reclaim the space.
- This command forces all in-core dirty data to be written to the primary
pool storage and not the ZIL. It will also update administrative
information including quota reporting. Without arguments,
syncwill sync all pools on the system. Otherwise, it will sync only the specified pool(s).
- Manage the on-disk format version of storage pools.
- Waits until all background activity of the given types has ceased in the given pool.
- Takes the specified physical device offline or brings it online.
- Starts a resilver. If an existing resilver is already running it will be restarted from the beginning.
- Reopen all the vdevs associated with the pool.
- Clears device errors in a pool.
Import & Export
- Make disks containing ZFS storage pools available for use on the system.
- Exports the given pools from the system.
- Generates a new unique identifier for the pool.
The following exit values are returned:
Example 1: Creating a RAID-Z Storage Pool
The following command creates a pool with a single raidz root vdev that consists of six disks:
createtank raidz sda sdb sdc sdd sde sdf
Example 2: Creating a Mirrored Storage Pool
The following command creates a pool with two mirrors, where each mirror contains two disks:
createtank mirror sda sdb mirror sdc sdd
Example 3: Creating a ZFS Storage Pool by Using Partitions
The following command creates a non-redundant pool using two disk partitions:
createtank sda1 sdb2
Example 4: Creating a ZFS Storage Pool by Using Files
The following command creates a non-redundant pool using files. While not recommended, a pool based on files can be useful for experimental purposes.
createtank /path/to/file/a /path/to/file/b
Example 5: Adding a Mirror to a ZFS Storage Pool
The following command adds two mirrored disks to the pool tank, assuming the pool is already made up of two-way mirrors. The additional space is immediately available to any datasets within the pool.
addtank mirror sda sdb
Example 6: Listing Available ZFS Storage Pools
The following command lists all available pools on the system. In this case, the pool zion is faulted due to a missing device. The results from this command are similar to the following:
listNAME SIZE ALLOC FREE EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT rpool 19.9G 8.43G 11.4G - 33% 42% 1.00x ONLINE - tank 61.5G 20.0G 41.5G - 48% 32% 1.00x ONLINE - zion - - - - - - - FAULTED -
Example 7: Destroying a ZFS Storage Pool
The following command destroys the pool tank and any datasets contained within:
Example 8: Exporting a ZFS Storage Pool
The following command exports the devices in pool tank so that they can be relocated or later imported:
Example 9: Importing a ZFS Storage Pool
The following command displays available pools, and then imports the pool tank for use on the system. The results from this command are similar to the following:
importpool: tank id: 15451357997522795478 state: ONLINE action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier. config: tank ONLINE mirror ONLINE sda ONLINE sdb ONLINE #
Example 10: Upgrading All ZFS Storage Pools to the Current Version
The following command upgrades all ZFS Storage pools to the current version of the software:
-aThis system is currently running ZFS version 2.
Example 11: Managing Hot Spares
The following command creates a new pool with an available hot spare:
createtank mirror sda sdb spare sdc
If one of the disks were to fail, the pool would be reduced to the degraded state. The failed device can be replaced using the following command:
replacetank sda sdd
Once the data has been resilvered, the spare is automatically removed and is made available for use should another device fail. The hot spare can be permanently removed from the pool using the following command:
Example 12: Creating a ZFS Pool with Mirrored Separate Intent Logs
The following command creates a ZFS storage pool consisting of two, two-way mirrors and mirrored log devices:
createpool mirror sda sdb mirror sdc sdd log mirror sde sdf
Example 13: Adding Cache Devices to a ZFS Pool
The following command adds two disks for use as cache devices to a ZFS storage pool:
addpool cache sdc sdd
Once added, the cache devices gradually fill with content from
main memory. Depending on the size of your cache devices, it could take over
an hour for them to fill. Capacity and reads can be monitored using the
iostat subcommand as follows:
Example 14: Removing a Mirrored top-level (Log or Data) Device
The following commands remove the mirrored log device mirror-2 and mirrored top-level data device mirror-1.
Given this configuration:
pool: tank state: ONLINE scrub: none requested config: NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM tank ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 sda ONLINE 0 0 0 sdb ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-1 ONLINE 0 0 0 sdc ONLINE 0 0 0 sdd ONLINE 0 0 0 logs mirror-2 ONLINE 0 0 0 sde ONLINE 0 0 0 sdf ONLINE 0 0 0
The command to remove the mirrored log mirror-2 is:
The command to remove the mirrored data mirror-1 is:
Example 15: Displaying expanded space on a device
The following command displays the detailed information for the pool data. This pool is comprised of a single raidz vdev where one of its devices increased its capacity by 10 GiB. In this example, the pool will not be able to utilize this extra capacity until all the devices under the raidz vdev have been expanded.
-vdata NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT data 23.9G 14.6G 9.30G - 48% 61% 1.00x ONLINE - raidz1 23.9G 14.6G 9.30G - 48% sda - - - - - sdb - - - 10G - sdc - - - - -
Example 16: Adding output columns
Additional columns can be added to the
iostat output with
-cvendor,model,size NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM vendor model size tank ONLINE 0 0 0 mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0 U1 ONLINE 0 0 0 SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T U10 ONLINE 0 0 0 SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T U11 ONLINE 0 0 0 SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T U12 ONLINE 0 0 0 SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T U13 ONLINE 0 0 0 SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T U14 ONLINE 0 0 0 SEAGATE ST8000NM0075 7.3T #
-vcsize capacity operations bandwidth pool alloc free read write read write size ---------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ---- rpool 14.6G 54.9G 4 55 250K 2.69M sda1 14.6G 54.9G 4 55 250K 2.69M 70G ---------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----
zpoolto dump core on exit for the purposes of running ::findleaks.
- Use ANSI color in
- The search path for devices or files to use with the pool. This is a
colon-separated list of directories in which
zpoollooks for device nodes and files. Similar to the
- The maximum time in milliseconds that
zpool importwill wait for an expected device to be available.
- If set, suppress warning about non-native vdev ashift in
status. The value is not used, only the presence or absence of the variable matters.
zpoolsubcommands to output vdev guids by default. This behavior is identical to the
-gcommand line option.
zpoolsubcommands to follow links for vdev names by default. This behavior is identical to the
-Lcommand line option.
zpoolsubcommands to output full vdev path names by default. This behavior is identical to the
-Pcommand line option.
- Older OpenZFS implementations had issues when attempting to display pool
config vdev names if a devid NVP value is present in the
For example, a pool that originated on illumos platform would have a devid value in the config and
statuswould fail when listing the config. This would also be true for future Linux-based pools.
A pool can be stripped of any devid values on import or prevented from adding them on
addby setting ZFS_VDEV_DEVID_OPT_OUT.
- Allow a privileged user to run
-c. Normally, only unprivileged users are allowed to run
- The search path for scripts when running
-c. This is a colon-separated list of directories and overrides the default ~/.zpool.d and /etc/zfs/zpool.d search paths.
- Allow a user to run
-c. If ZPOOL_SCRIPTS_ENABLED is not set, it is assumed that the user is allowed to run
- Time, in seconds, to wait for /dev/zfs to appear. Defaults to 10, max 600 (10 minutes). If <0, wait forever; if 0, don't wait.
zfs(4), zpool-features(7), zpoolconcepts(7), zpoolprops(7), zed(8), zfs(8), zpool-add(8), zpool-attach(8), zpool-checkpoint(8), zpool-clear(8), zpool-create(8), zpool-destroy(8), zpool-detach(8), zpool-events(8), zpool-export(8), zpool-get(8), zpool-history(8), zpool-import(8), zpool-initialize(8), zpool-iostat(8), zpool-labelclear(8), zpool-list(8), zpool-offline(8), zpool-online(8), zpool-reguid(8), zpool-remove(8), zpool-reopen(8), zpool-replace(8), zpool-resilver(8), zpool-scrub(8), zpool-set(8), zpool-split(8), zpool-status(8), zpool-sync(8), zpool-trim(8), zpool-upgrade(8), zpool-wait(8)
|March 16, 2022||Debian|